Hydrocarbon Reservoir and Well Performance

Hydrocarbon Reservoir and Well Performance
  • Hydrocarbon Reservoir and Well Performance

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Hydrocarbon Reservoir and Well Performance

T. E. W. Nind

London New York Chapman and Hall

Contents Preface 1 Oil and gas properties 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Composition 1.3 Single-component behavior 1.4 Behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures: the phase envelope 1.5 Natural gas properties 1.6 Crude-oil properties 1.7 PVT tests 2 Properties of the environment 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Requirements for a reservoir: some typical traps 2.3 Oilfield waters: capillary pressure and water saturation 2.4 Compressibility of porous media 2.5 Initial pressures and pressure gradients 2.6 Fracturing of rock under stress 2.7 Reservoir temperature 3 Volumetric-balance equations 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The general form of the MBE 3.3 Gas reservoirs 3.4 Production from undersaturated oil field 3.5 Water encroachment 3.6 Volumetric-balance equation applied at pump intake 4 Liquid movement through the formation 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Potential and pressure in fluid flow 4.3 Permeability 4.4 The question of units 4.5 The radial-diffusivity (continuity) equation

ix I 1 1 4 $ 12 17 20 24 24 24 28 33 36 39 43 45 45 45 53 57 58 63 47 67 67 71 73 73

vi 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5

Contents 77 78 81 87 91

Steady-state flow: no net withdrawal Semi-steady-state flow: no replacement of withdrawals Transient flow: the non-equilibrium of theis equation Summary of Flowing BHP behavior Permeability variations and permeability averaging The flow of more than one fluid: effective and relative permeabilities Maximizing the recovery Introduction The frontal-advance-rate formula Mobilization efficiency, displacement efficiency, and economic efficiency Areal-sweep efficiency Vertical-sweep efficiency Mobility ratio Overall recovery efficiency Thermal recovery methods Miscible drives Postscript Analysis of oil-well test results: single-fluid flow Introduction Superposition and the method of images Skin factor Drawdown tests Pressure-buildup analysis Productivity index Flow efficiency Analysis of gas-well test results Introduction The radial-diffusivity equation for gas wells Gas-flow equations, based on the diffusivity equation Non-Darcy flow Multiple-rate drawdown tests: non-stabilized flow conditions Multiple-rate drawdown tests: isochronal and p^-plot methods The Mishra-Caudle curves Analysis of well-test results: two-phase flow Introduction Modifying the radial-flow formulas Influence of free gas in the formation The IPR: solution-gas-drive reservoirs Future IPRs: solution-gas-drive reservoirs

95 98 98 99 109 110 114 128 130 131 135 137 139 139 139 142 144 154 161 162 166 166 166 170 175 177 186 190 200 200 201 202 204 212

Contents 8.6 The effect of skin on the IPR: solution-gas-drive reservoirs 8.7 Effect of formation stratification 9 Flow to the surface 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Flow through pipes (incompressible fluid) 9.3 Gas flow through vertical tubing 9.4 Multiphase flow in tubing 9.5 The correlations: vertical two-phase flow 9.6 Annular-flow gradients 9.7 Inclined pipe: deviated holes 9.8 Gradient-curve families 9.9 Gas flow as limiting case of two-phase flow II) Flowing-well performance 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Tubing-head pressure curves and tubing-performance curves 10.3 The effects of tubing diameter 10.4 Surface control 10.5 Flowing-well performance 10.6 Production-rate and maximum-rate decline curves 10.7 Identification of changes in a well’s productive capacity 10.8 Wet gas wells 11 Artificial lift: gas lift 111 Introduction 11.2 General considerations 11.3 Applications of gas lift 11.4 Some rules of thumb: continuous gas lift 11.5 Locating the bottom valve: continuous gas lift 11.6 Gas-injection rate for maximum profit 11.7 Gas-lift valves 11.8 Gas-lift string design 11.9 Intermittent gas lift 12 Artificial lift: electric suhmersihie and hydraulic pumps 12.1 Introduction 12.2 The electric submersible pump (ESP) 12.3 Pumps with hydraulic drive 12.4 Overview of artificial-lift systems Appendix: conversion factors Suggestions for further reading Index

vii 217 226 236 236 236 240 242 249 252 254 255 259 261 261 262 263 266 272 277 286 288 293 293 293 296 297 298 305 307 312 316 322 322 ^3 342 351 MS M7 360